JUEDISCHE FREISCHULE

JUEDISCHE FREISCHULE (Ger.; "Jewish Free School"), private school for poor children, founded in Berlin in 1778 by Isaac daniel itzig and david friedlaender , who were influenced by Moses Mendelssohn's ideas on education. Adjoining the school was a printing shop whose returns were to contribute to the maintenance of the school. The subjects taught comprised writing, arithmetic, accountancy, drawing, reading in German and French, and geography. Biblical Hebrew was taught only to a very limited extent, the greatest amount of time being given to commercial courses. In 1779 Friedlaender published a reader for his pupils – one of the first of its kind to be used in German Jewish schools – containing excerpts from German and Hebrew literature, the latter in German translations by Mendelssohn. Some Christians were included on the teaching staff. During the first few years there were about 80 pupils. After ten years, however, about 500 pupils had graduated from the school. Following the death of I.D. Itzig in 1806, lazarus bendavid was appointed principal. He was prompted by ideological and practical considerations to accept Christian pupils, whose number increased, in the course of time, to one-third of the total. The Freischule thus became the first interdenominational school in Germany. Of the 80 pupils attending the school, in 1817, 40 were educated free of charge, and 16 were Christians. At the time of the reaction following the Napoleonic wars, the Prussian government forbade Christian children to attend Jewish schools; consequently, all non-Jewish pupils had to leave the school in 1819. In the same year the number of Jewish pupils decreased to 50 and by 1825 the school had to be closed. In the 48 years of its existence the Freischule educated about 1,000 students, a majority of whom later took an active part in the Reform movement. The school, which had always advocated modern teaching methods, served as a model for similar schools such as the Samsonschule in wolfenbuettel and the Philanthropin in Frankfurt. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Eliav, Ha-Hinnukh ha-Yehudi be-Germanyah (1961), 71–79. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. Lohmann, Ḥevrat Ḥinukh Ne'arim (2001). (Reuven Michael)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BERLIN — BERLIN, largest city and capital of Germany. The Old Community (1295–1573) Jews are first mentioned in a letter from the Berlin local council of Oct. 28, 1295, forbidding wool merchants to supply Jews with wool yarn. Suzerainty over the Jews… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BENDAVID, LAZARUS — (Eleazar; 1762–1832), German mathematician, philosopher, and educator. He attended the universities of Göttingen and Halle, and spent from 1792 to 1797 in Vienna where he delivered public lectures on Kantian philosophy. In 1802 he became… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • CHILDREN'S LITERATURE — This entry is arranged according to the following outline: introduction CHILDREN S LITERATURE IN HEBREW early period …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • EUCHEL, ISAAC ABRAHAM — (1756–1804), Hebrew author, Bible commentator, and one of the leaders of the haskalah in Germany. Born in Copenhagen, Euchel, having received a traditional education, moved in 1773 to Koenigsberg, where he earned his living as a tutor in the home …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ITZIG, DANIEL — (also called Daniel Jaffe or Daniel Berlin; 1723–1799), German banker, entrepreneur, and leader of the Berlin Jewish community. The son of a horse merchant, Itzig married into the wealthy Wulff family and began his career as purveyor of silver to …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ZUNZ, LEOPOLD — (Yom Tov Lippman (n); 1794–1886), philologist, among the founders of the Science of Judaism (wissenschaft des judentums ). Born in Detmold, Germany, the child of talmud scholar Immanuel Menachem Zunz (1759– 1802) and Hendel Behrens (1773–1809),… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Jüdische Oberschule Berlin — Jüdische Oberschule zu Berlin Schulform Gymnasium und Reals …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • HASKALAH — (Heb. הַשְׂכָּלָה), Hebrew term for the Enlightenment movement and ideology which began within Jewish society in the 1770s. An adherent of Haskalah became known as a maskil (pl. maskilim). The movement continued to be influential and spread, with …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • WOLFENBUETTEL — WOLFENBUETTEL, town in Lower Saxony, Germany. There was a small Jewish community in Wolfenbuettel during the 18th century. In 1781 a synagogue was erected to replace the prayer room that had previously been in use. After a new synagogue was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.